We present a case of a 48-year-old man who underwent elective combined (i.e., hybrid) open and endovascular repair of chronic aortic dissection Type A (frozen elephant trunk with endovascular stent) in a one-stage operation with moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest and antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP). His past medical history included a 7-month-old known aortic dissection Type A, hypertension, and smoking. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography showed left ventricular ejection fraction of 58% with dissection of the ascending aorta above the sinotubular junction extending to the aortic arch. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) angiography of the aorta revealed aortic dissection of the ascending aorta extending to the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta (Figures 1IA, 1IB, 1IC, 1ID and Figure 2A). The dimensions of the aortic root (sinus of Valsalva level), ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta were 40 mm, 50 mm, 52 mm, and 40 mm, respectively. Aortic arch vessels and all abdominal branches originated from the true lumen.
Replacement of the thoracic aorta was performed under moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest and ACP. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was established via a graft to the right axillary artery and right atrium. Cardioplegic arrest was achieved using retrograde cold Custodiol solution. When bladder temperature reached 22.5°C and circulatory arrest was established, ACP was started via the right axillary artery and left common carotid artery. The ascending aorta, aortic arch, and proximal descending aorta were resected, and debranching of the aortic arch vessels was performed.
A 24-mm endovascular stent with a 50-mm length graft and 130-mm stent graft (E-vita OPEN PLUS graft, JOTEC, Schweiz, Germany) was implanted in the proximal descending aorta. Arch vessels were selectively implanted on the graft. The proximal ascending aorta and the rest of the aortic arch graft was sutured, and circulation was reestablished. The patient was weaned from CPB and transferred to the intensive care unit. Circulatory arrest, aortic cross clamp, and CPB durations were 93 min, 146 min, and 292 min, respectively. Four days after the operation, CT angiography revealed thrombosis of the false lumen in the descending thoracic aorta (Figures 1IIA, 1IIB, 1IIC, and 1IID). The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged home on postoperative day 9. At 24-month follow-up, CT angiography of the aorta showed complete obliteration and shrinkage of the false lumen of the descending thoracic aorta (Figures 1IIIA, 1IIIB, 1IIIC, and 1IIID) and thrombosis of the false lumen of the abdominal aorta (Figures 2B and 2C).
The descending thoracic aorta is amenable to remodeling by extending the stent graft into the true lumen with subsequent obliteration of the false lumen. The latter procedure is achieved at all levels of the stent graft. A similar procedure has been considered successful when complete thrombosis of the false lumen is achieved at 3-month follow-up, both in cases of acute and chronic Stanford Type A aortic dissection [1–3]. Gorlitzer et al.  described shrinkage of the false lumen in 64% of patients who underwent this treatment modality across a follow-up period of 12 months. In our case, complete shrinkage of the false lumen was present at 24-month follow-up.